1. In vitro study
1.1 NMN protects mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial bioenergetics
To evaluate the anti-aging action of NMN in vitro, scientists assessed the effects of NMN on cellular mtROS production and mitochondrial phenotype in cultured primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs). NMN attenuates mitochondrial oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial bioenergetics in aged cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. NMN treatment restores NO release in aged CMVECs in vitro and that NMN supplementation also rescues endothelial NO-mediated vasodilation in the aortas of aged mice.
1.2 NMN converts to NAD by different enzymes in different subcellular compartments
1.3 NMN increases NAD and delays cell death
2. In vivo study
2.1 Increases cellular energy
In human cells, NMN is available as a source of cellular energy. Mitochondria are intracellular powerhouses that produce ATP and carry out diverse functions for cellular energy metabolism. Mitochondrial ATP production and membrane potential require the universal cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD). NMN increases cellular energy by converting to NAD in cells.
2.2 Helps lose body weight
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and multi-organ insulin resistance. Administrating NMN improved multi-organ insulin sensitivity, increased adiponectin production, and decreased free fatty acids production. Feeding mice with drinking water containing NMN inhibited age-induced weight gain. NAD+ and NAMPT levels decrease in multiple organs during aging, and NMN improves glucose intolerance and lipid profiles in age-induced Type 2 Diabetes mice. NMN is a potential nutriceutical intervention against diet- and age-induced Type 2 Diabetes.
2.3 Improves learning and memory
2.4 Protects retina
Photoreceptor death is the endpoint of many blinding diseases. Rod or cone photoreceptor-specific deletion of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme in the major NAD+ biosynthetic pathway beginning with nicotinamide, causes retinal degeneration. In both cases, we could rescue vision with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN).
2.5 Facilitates blood flow and heart health
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